Privacy Glossary D – I

Part of assignment one for Privacy directed readings class.

Decisional interference To require people to act in ways that are not their own choice. The former prohibition of contraceptives in Connecticut is a decisional interference. It affects how people behave in private places such as the home. The belief that others should not intrude in such private situations implies that the one should be able to make decisions there.
Dignity A concept of human value and worth; how one is treated and respected. Some affronts to dignity can be considered privacy violations as they put individuals in a negative light or reduce the respect of them by the community.
Disclosure The release of private and confidential true information to others. This privacy problem can cause damage to ones reputation It may distort what others think of us. The courts protect confidential information but if multiple people know it, it is not protected, even if the group is contained. This distinguishing of confidential and secret limits ones protections against disclosure. Once some confidential information about an individual is available, it is available to be used in secondary use privacy problems.
Distortion The omission or modifying of information in a way that is harmful to the person or group involved. This privacy problem cause one to be seen in a false light. It reduces one’s ability to control how other people view you.
EU Data Protection Directive Regulations strictly regulating personal information in the European Union.
Exclusion To prevent access of an individual to information about them. This causes insecurity through the lack of knowledge of ones information. One cannot correct incorrect data that is held by others. One becomes powerless and vulnerable that the information is misused. Exclusion can prevent informed consent.
Exposure The release of information that is an affront to dignity and may cause humiliation by their release. Exposure is different from disclosure in the content of the information released. Arguments that information released in an exposure violation of privacy can override the fact that the information was collected in public.
FERPA (Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act) A privacy act from 1974 that governs the access of information and records about students in an educational setting.
Freedom of the press A constitutionally protected right to publish information that may be unpopular, opposed to the government or that others wish to control. Intellectual freedom rights are derived from this right.
Freedom of speech A constitutionally protected right to express ones thoughts and opinions freely and without censure except in certain special cases. U.S. courts carefully analyze legislation and regulations that may abridge freedom of speech.
Freedom of thought The ability to believe and think as one desires. It is more basic than a freedom of speech because it allows one to disagree with power structures and work toward change.
HIPAA Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act defines protected health information and determines penalties for inappropriate use of information. It also regulates the availability of some health insurance opportunities.
Identification The connection of information with a specific person. One’s identity is harder to change through identification. With identifying items, it allows one to merge online information about a person. Correcting wrong information is made difficult. The ability to speak out with unpopular or controversial positions is diminished though the ability to identify the specific individual to the ideas. It allows the government to potentially have more control over the individual.
Identity An essence of what a person is. What is different about them from others? How they think and feel. What they choose and disallow.
Imbalance of power Many privacy problems involve an imbalance of power where the effects of the situation are on society as a whole and not that it affects individual. By restraining the activities of governments and other organizations, the experiences of the individual benefit indirectly from the restraint.
Increased accessibility The availability for an individual or their information to others more readily. The combination of multiple government records can provide additional information. Through increased accessibility, that information may be used as part of other privacy problems. One can lose security when more people have access to your address or other personal details.
Individual and social harm In U.S. cases the focus on privacy redress is applied to whether the violation harms an individual. The existence of potential harm or harm to society are generally not addressed.
Information collection A category of privacy problem in the taxonomy “Understanding Privacy” by Daniel J. Solove. He places the problems of surveillance and interrogation in this category.
Information dissemination A category of privacy problem in the taxonomy “Understanding Privacy” by Daniel J. Solove. He places breach of confidentiality, exposure, blackmail, disclosure, appropriation, distortion and increased accessibility in this category.
Information processing A category of privacy problem in the taxonomy “Understanding Privacy” by Daniel J. Solove. He places secondary use, aggregation, identification, insecurity and exclusion in this category.
Informed consent A decision made after acquiring knowledge of the aspects of a situation. On one hand, one uses informed consent to allow a medical procedure. Another, one uses informed consent when you provide information to a service provider. It is a principle included in Fair Information Practices.
Interrogation The retrieval of information without consent. From the police asking questions about an investigation to testing for drugs in a high school, the interrogation may be worthwhile or harmful. By asking for information in other ways may give the implication that the information is compulsory. Interrogation can force betrayal of confidences, cause one to divulge private information and at times be compulsory.
Intrusion The violation of the principle has the right to be let alone. In private places, such as ones home, the intrusion of other people in the place of seclusion and violate social respect.
Invasion A category of privacy problem in the taxonomy “Understanding Privacy” by Daniel J. Solove. He places decisional interference and intrusion in this category.